NGUYỄN HỮU VIỆN : Ý KIẾN Chính trị Xã hội - Phần 1/Người Con Gái Trường Sơn Năm Xưa (PHẦN 2)












  


Người Con Gái Trường Sơn Năm Xưa


(PHẦN 2) «Tôi muốn thắp một nén hương Cho những Người Con Gái Xấu Số Dù các bạn không bao giờ trở lại Chúng tôi - Người Con Gái đánh mất Tuổi Thanh Xuân vẫn đợi vẫn chờ Chúng tôi - Người Con Gái Trường Sơn Tóc đã muối sương lòng còn tràn đầy Kỷ niệm Tưởng nhớ những Người Bạn Tình Xưa Đã mãi mãi đi xa không bao giờ tìm lại được « (0) («Thời Con Gái» - Trần Thị Bình) Where Have All the Flowers Gone?
Vietnam WAR - Joan Baez - Where have all the flowers gone? - Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi? Những cô gái trẻ đã hái chúng hết, mọi bông hoa Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Những cô gái trẻ đi đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những cô gái trẻ đi đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những cô gái trẻ đi đâu mất rồi? Đi lấy chồng, mọi người đều thế Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Những người chồng đi đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những người chồng đi đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những người chồng đi đâu mất rồi? Đi lính hết rồi, mọi người đều đi hết. Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Những người lính đi đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những người lính đi đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những người lính đi đâu mất rồi? Họ chết hết rồi, mọi người đều chết hết. Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Những nghĩa địa đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những nghĩa địa đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những nghĩa địa đâu mất rồi? Đã hóa thành những bông hoa, mọi thứ đều thế. Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi, thời gian qua lâu rồi ư? Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi, đã xa xưa rồi sao? Những bông hoa đi đâu mất rồi? Những cô gái trẻ đã hái chúng hết, mọi bông hoa Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Ôi, khi nào thì họ mới học hỏi được? Where have all the flowers gone, long time passing? Where have all the flowers gone, long time ago? Where have all the flowers gone? Gone to young girls, every one! When will they ever learn, when will they ever learn? Where have all the young girls gone, long time passing? Where have all the young girls gone, long time ago? Where have all the young girls gone? Gone to young men, every one! When will they ever learn, when will they ever learn? Where have all the young men gone, long time passing? Where have all the young men gone, long time ago? Where have all the young men gone? Gone to soldiers, every one! When will they ever learn, when will they ever learn? And where have all the soldiers gone, long time passing? Where have all the soldiers gone, a long time ago? Where have all the soldiers gone? Gone to graveyards, every one! When will they ever learn, when will they ever learn? And where have all the graveyards gone, long time passing? Where have all the graveyards gone, long time ago? Where have all the graveyards gone? Gone to flowers, every one! When will they ever learn, oh when will they ever learn? The song was inspired by a passage from Mikhail Sholokhov's novel "And Quiet Flows the Don" with additional verses by Joe Hickerson. PHỤ LỤC & GHI CHÚ =============== 0. Nguyễn Hữu Viện phỏng dịch lại từ bản dịch tiếng Anh Vietnam's Women of War by David Lamb - Los Angeles Times : «I'd like to burn a simple incense stick for the unlucky girls who died. Though they never come back, we who lost our youth keep waiting. We are the Truong Son girls, now gray and full of memories, Remembering our unfound love partners who have gone far away.» ("Young Girl's Time" Tran Thi Binh) 1. «Trường Sơn Đông Trường Sơn Tây» - Phạm Tiến Duật Trường Sơn Đông Trường Sơn Tây ============== Cùng mắc võng trên rừng Trường Sơn Hai đứa ở hai đầu xa thẳm Đường ra trận mùa này đẹp lắm Trường Sơn Đông nhớ Trường Sơn Tây * * * Một dãy núi mà hai màu mây Nơi nắng nơi mưa, khí trời cũng khác Như anh với em, như Nam với Bắc Như Đông với Tây một dải rừng liền * * * Trường Sơn Tây anh đi, thương em Bên ấy mưa nhiều, con đường gánh gạo Muỗi bay rừng già cho dài tay áo Rau hết rồi, em có lấy măng không? * * * Em thương anh bên Tây mùa đông Nước khe cạn, bướm bay lèn đá Biết lòng anh say miền đất lạ Chắc em lo đường chắn bom thù. * * * Anh lên xe, trời đổ cơn mưa Cái gạt nước xua đi nỗi nhớ Em xuống núi nắng về rực rỡ Cái nhành cây gạt nỗi riêng tư. * * * Đông sang Tây không phải đường thư: Đường chuyển đạn và đường chuyển gạo Đông Trường Sơn, cô gái «ba sẵn sàng» xanh áo Tây Trường Sơn bộ đội áo màu xanh * * * Từ nơi em gửi đến nơi anh Những đoàn quân trùng trùng ra trận Như tình yêu nói lời vô tận Đông Trường Sơn nối Tây Trường Sơn Phạm Tiến Duật 2. Les Oubliées de la Piste Hô Chi Minh (05/3/2004 ) / Nữ phóng viên Laurence Jourdan 3. Lời Bà Vũ Hoài Thu quê ở Ninh Bình 4. Lời Bà Nguyễn Thị Bình. Bà Bình đã sống một mình suốt 17 năm, một hình thức lưu vong trong một xã hội nặng về gia đình trong đó những phụ nữ hiếm muộn và những cặp vợ chồng không con là những đối tượng để thương hại. Thế rồi, trước sự thúc giục của những cựu đồng chí trong một đoàn phụ nữ -- đoàn 559 -- bà Bình đã "lấy một người chồng qua đêm" và sinh được một đứa con gái. Bà và đứa con, tên Lan, hiện 10 tuổi, sống với nhau trên một cánh đồng lúa nhỏ do bà Bình canh tác. "Những người tốt dành cho tôi sự hiểu biết và tình cảm," bà Bình nói. "Và tôi biết ơn điều đó. Nhưng đôi khi những người xấu đem con họ tới nhà tôi và nói, «Đừng như người đàn bà đó" 5. Lời Bà Nguyễn Thị Nhòng, 51 tuổi, một cựu Nữ Chiến binh của Đoàn 559. 6. "Chúng tôi đã sống và ngủ chung nhưng không đụng chạm," theo lời một phụ nữ trong Đoàn 559, người đã cho rằng có được sự kềm chế là nhờ tinh thần bảo thủ về văn hóa. "Tôi không thấy một vụ mang thai nào trong đơn vị của chúng tôi. Chúng tôi khao khát Tình Yêu, nhưng chỉ trong Tim mà thôi." 7. «đẹp hơn hoa Hồng cứng hơn sắt thép» thơ Nam Hà Vietnam's Women of War David Lamb - Los Angeles Times January 10th, 2003 They answered their country's call and fought the Americans. But when Peace came, their own society cast them aside. By David Lamb - Times Staff writer Ninh Binh, Vietnam - They were the girls of war, teenage volunteers who took up arms in one of the largest female armies any nations have put on a modern battlefield. For years they fought, sustaining themselves with a dream central to Vietnamese culture: "When there was peace, they would find a good husband and bear children." For many of them, it was not to be. When they came home at the war's end in 1975, they were perceived as less desirable, as damaged by the disease, malnutrition and other hardships they had endured in the jungle. Young men, themselves just back from the war, did not return their glances on the street. If love bloomed, parents would often cut it short, forbidding their sons to marry women who appeared too weak to give birth or raise a child. "How the jungle aged me", said Vu Hoai Thu, one of 500 women of the town of Ninh Binh, 60 miles south of Hanoi, who fought in what the Vietnamese call the American war. "Finally, I did find a nice boy. He asked to marry me, but his parents would not allow it. He did not want to leave me, but I convince him he must. I was weak from Malaria and malnutrition. I did not think I would ever be strong enough to give him children". Women like Thu are in their 50's now, and when they meet to commemorate their sacrifices, they speak of loosing the springtime of their youth on the Truong Son road, or the Ho Chi Ming Trail. They talk of coming home to lives that were tougher than the ones they had left. Bitterness lingers that for many years they were forgotten as soldiers in a war that made heroes of the men who fought, but not the women. "I thought my life after the war would be simple and happy", said Nguyen Thi Binh, who came home weighing 85 pounds. "But I let my boyfriend go. I told him that with my diseases, with my wounded leg, I would be a burden on him." Binh lived on her own for 17 years, a form of exile in a family-oriented society in which barren women and childless couples are object of pity. Then, at the urging of her former comrades in a women's brigade, the 559, Binh "took a husband for a night" and bore a daughter. She and her child, Lan, now 10, live together on a rice paddy that Binh farms. "The good people offer understanding and sympathy", Binh said. "And I appreciate that. But sometimes bad people will bring their children to my house and say: "Don't be like that woman." But if the "patriotic call went out" to fight in a future war, Binh said, she would let her daughter march off to battle, just as she did. "We have a saying in Vietnam," she said, "that if the enemy comes, even the women must fight." Vietnam has a long history of women warriors. Two of the country's most revered heroes are the Trung sisters, Trac and Nhi, who led an insurrection against China in AD 05 and liberated Vietnam. One of their commanders, Phung Thi Chinh, is said to have given birth during the battle and to have continued fighting with her infant strapped to her back. Another woman, Trieu Au, rode an elephant into battle against the Chinese in AD 248, leading a force of 3,000. Defeated in battle, she committed suicide at the age of 23. Military historians estimate that in the 1950's, nearly a million female guerillas took part in the war against colonial French forces. In the conflict with the US, 40% of the VietCong regional commanders were women. One of them, Nguyen Thi Dinh, was a general. Hundreds of thousands of women, most of them young and single, served in combat zones in that war. They operated antiaircraft guns, built road under frequent bombardment and went on patrols in mixed-gender units. "We lived and slept together but did not touch", said a woman in the 559 Brigade, who attributed the restraint to cultural conservatism. "I don't know of a single pregnancy in our unit. We thirst for Love, but only in our Hearts." Other women collected intelligence, spied, and ferried troops and supplies along riverways in small boats. Mai Thi Diem volunteered to fight after the US bombed the communal farm where she lived , killing 100 people, including many of her relatives. "I weighed 35 kilos (77 pounds) when I went to enlist, and the army said I was too small", said Diem, who still walks with a limp, the result of a land mine injury. "I told them I would throw myself off the bridge and commit suicide if they didn't take me. Finally, they said OK." Le Minh Khue, a Hanoi novelist, has written of the powerful bond gorged by the war effort. I love everyone with a passionate love, wrote Khue, who lied about her age and joined the army at 15. It was a love, she said, that "only someone who had stood on that hill in those moments could understand fully. That was the love of the people in smoke and fire, the people of war." Phan Thanh Hao, a journalist and co-author of a book on Vietnam's female warriors , served in the Truong Son Mountains along the HoChiMinh Trail. "Women tipped the balance toward victory in the war," she said. "Other than the Soviet Union in World War II, no countries come close to having the number of women in direct combat roles. Still, it was hard for us to become normal again, For my generation, our hearts tighten to this day when we hear an airplane overhead." The girls of war came home to families that were poor. Having another mouth to feed was a problem. Emaciated by disease and malnutrition, their skin weathered by years in the jungle, they were perceived as less attractive than when they had set out from their villages. In addition, so many young men were killed during the war that the pool of prospective husbands was reduced. Even today, there are 97.9 men for every 100 women in Vietnam, one of the lowest ratio in Southeast Asia. "I was so lucky", said Nguyen Thi Nhong, 51, a veteran of the 559 Brigade. "I met a young man, very handsome, on Truong Son. He was from a nearby village and we married. But I know so many other who fell in love on the battlefield and searched and searched after the war but could never find each other." Many of the women recovered their health and married. Others who remained single went to live in Buddhist pagodas or in government housing projects. In the early 1980s, in a step to ease their isolation, the government sought to lift the taboo against bearing children out of wedlock. Unwed mothers and their children, it was announced, would be considered families and eligible for a grant of land to grow rice. Thousand of women took "a husband for the night." Though recognition has been slow, women are starting to receive credit for their contributions to the war effort. A Women's Museum opened in Hanoi in 1995. All schoolchildren now write essays on women's role in the war. A monument is being built on the banks of the Nhat Le river near the old demilitarized zone , honoring a woman who ferried men and supplies in her boat despite bombardment. And the women of the 559 Brigade who went off to war as teenage volunteers have been given a special medal as "Soldiers of Truong Son." Three of those soldiers wore their uniforms to a recent reunion in Ninh Binh. They and half a dozen others gathered at a small restaurant to honor the 40 comrades who didn't come back from Truong Son and the 50 others who returned as invalids. They exchanged small talk and memories, and when lunch was served, the brigade commander, Tran Thi Binh, stood and announced she wanted to share a poem she had written , "Young Girl's Time." It was long, and she recited from memory in a singsong cadence, her eyes closed. I'd like to burn a simple incense stick for the unlucky girls who died. Though they never come back, we who lost our youth keep waiting. We are the Truong Son girls, now gray and full of memories, Remembering our unfound love partners who have gone far away. The other women at the table look away. A few buried their faces in their hands. Several dabbed their eyes with tissues. When Binh finished, there was an awkward silence. Then someone said, "Let's make this a happy day." Trail of Tears Vietnam's trail of tears is being reborn By David Lamb 8/20/00 Los Angeles Times DAKRONG, Vietnam - The Ho Chi Minh Trail, which carried 1 million North Vietnamese soldiers south and confounded the United States' top military strategists for 10 years, belongs to history now, its network of hidden dirt roads reclaimed by jungle, leeches and ghosts of a war long past. But though abandoned, there is hardly anything or anyone, save Ho Chi Minh himself, that the Vietnamese of the north hold more dear than the supply route that was once the world's deadliest road. Without it, Hanoi's dream of a reunified Vietnam might well have remained a dream. Many of the Vietnam War's most famous battles - Khe Sanh, Hamburger Hill, Ia Drang - were fought, at least indirectly, for control of this meandering track that started in a gorge Hanoi's troops called "Heaven's Gate." And some of the war's most valuable lessons were learned here, among them that air power alone doesn't guarantee victory. "I drove this stretch of the road many, many times during the war, hauling ammunition, supplies, taking the wounded north," said Sgt. Trong Minh Long, 48, who carries a shovel instead of a gun these days. "There was no more dangerous duty." Today, Long and 30 army colleagues are back on this ribbon of track now known as Highway 14, near the former U.S. encampment at Khe Sanh. Chinese- and Russian-made trucks, relics of the early war years, rumble by loaded with gravel and rock. Soldiers cluster around bamboo huts where rice and chicken broth simmer in caldrons and freshly washed fatigues are laid across bushes to dry in the breathless summer heat. The long-silent jungle stirs at last with voices and movement and peace's dividends. In the largest state-financed public-works program since the Vietnam War ended in 1975, the trail is being reborn and rebuilt, this time as the Ho Chi Minh Highway. The new road will link Hanoi with Ho Chi Minh City, formerly Saigon, 1,050 miles south, and open vast expanses of previously inaccessible terrain. The four-year project is monumental. It will cost 0 million, a staggering sum for one of Southeast Asia's poorest countries. More than 300 bridges will be built. Hills will be razed, tunnels burrowed. Narrow dirt roadwill be widened, raised for flood control and paved. Unexploded mines and bombs will be defused. Only the vanguard Long's 11th Engineer Brigade is but the vanguard of a work force that eventually will number 50,000 soldiers and youth volunteers. "We think the highway will have a big economic impact," Ha Dinh Can, the project's general director, said in Hanoi, the capital. "There will be a huge boost to employment. Timber and coffee producers will have easier access to their markets. Tourists will be able to get to remote areas that were unreachable before. Driving times will be shortened." Hanoi long maintained the war against the Saigon government was fought by indigenous Viet Cong guerrillas, not North Vietnamese soldiers, and that Hanoi's direct support of the Viet Cong was in response to the landing of the first U.S. combat troops, in Danang on March 8, 1965. But the history of the trail - which is the history of the war itself - indicates Hanoi's battle plans were drawn 10 years before the arrival of the first two Marine battalions. On May 19, 1955, Ho Chi Minh's 65th birthday, Maj. Vo Bam, a defense-supply specialist, was instructed to find a supply route south. Traveling with 500 troops, Bam put together a patchwork of paths through the triple- canopy jungle. By the winter of 1962-63, North Vietnam had 5,000 troops and an engineering regiment assigned to the trail. In the next few years, the route was upgraded into a network of roads that covered 10,000 miles. `24 different ways you could die' "We got our orders to move south in January 1966," recalled Nguyen Duc Bao, 70, a retired colonel who lives in Ho Chi Minh City. "The trail was very secret then. We'd lay a canvas sheet over dirt roads, and the last man across would roll it up so there'd be no footprints. We carried our own weight in weapons, supplies, medicine. We set up storehouses for rice. Usually, it was a 20-day walk from one storehouse to the next. In between, we ate roots." At first, the American bombing wasn't so bad. But malaria, snakes, starvation, drowning, accidents were just as deadly. In the four months it took us to reach the south, 100 men in my regiment died. I counted 24 different ways you could die on the road." Hanoi claimed to have shot down 2,500 U.S. planes over the trail; the Pentagon said it lost 500 planes. Whatever the truth, Operations Steel Tiger and Tiger Hound set the forests ablaze, littered the trail with charred corpses and scorched vehicles, triggered landslides and, by CIA estimates, probably killed only one soldier for every 300 bombs dropped. Using elephants, horses, specially designed bikes - which could carry 500 pounds of supplies - and, later, trucks, Hanoi's volunteer Shock Youth Brigades Against U.S. Aggression for National Salvation - many of them women - turned Bam's old footpath into what would become the road to victory. "We're in the middle of nowhere here," said Dam Trong Nam, 26, one of the soldiers building the new highway. "But when you think what the people went through during the war on the road, you don't complain. We're building our country just like they did, helping develop the economy. I really hope the Americans understand how important the highway is and help us more and more to develop our economy." Tricks stump U.S. technology The United States dropped 1.7 million tons of bombs on the Ho Chi Minh Trail in an unsuccessful effort to cut off supplies. It used rain-inducing techniques to flood the trail and Agent Orange to strip the jungle awning. It gave anti-personnel cluster bombs their first significant test. It dropped "invisible" parachutes - sensors that burrowed into the ground like bamboo sprouts and relayed data back to Nakhon Phanom in Thailand for evaluation by U.S. intelligence experts. It built the McNamara Line, an electronic cordon with 20,000 sensors reaching from the South China Sea to the Laotian border. But month by month, year after year, the soldiers and supplies reaching the south increased. Infiltrators set buckets of urine near chemical sensors or drove water buffalo past motion-detecting sensors so information transmitted was often meaningless. The trail itself became an intertwined web of bypasses and parallel tracks and access roads onto which traffic could be rerouted, much like a railroad switching yard. By 1968, an estimated 150,000 North Vietnamese soldiers had safely made the journey south. By 1975, trucks were making the journey to the southern front - a trek that had taken foot soldiers six months - in 23 days. "My unit shot down 32 U.S. planes," said Nguyen Thanh Son, 50, a former anti-aircraft gunner. "I used to think of the pilots as savages when they were in the planes. Then I saw three or four who'd been shot down, and they were like little children. They cried. They were afraid of the U.S. bombs like we were." Our trenches were only large enough for Vietnamese, not the Americans, who were very big. So we gave them shovels and said, `Dig your own trench.' They dug very quickly. They were frightened. In short, they were human beings like us." *************** Public Affairs Books is Proud to Announce the Publication of VIETNAM, NOW: A Reporter Returns By David Lamb Thirty years after he reported on the war as a young combat correspondent, David Lamb returned to Vietnam to cover the peace for the Los Angeles Times. He moved into an apartment in downtown Hanoi, the city he once viewed as the «enemy» capital, and began exploring the new Vietnam, a country emerging from years of political and economic isolation. Lamb was surprised by what he discovered during his four-year journey. His readers will be, too. «This is a truly a magnificent book,» comments Pete Peterson, former POW and the first U.S. Ambassador to peacetime Vietnam, «and the first ever to accurately capture Vietnam as it is today.» Stanley Karnow, author of VIETNAM: A History: «Americans discovered Vietnam during the tragic war there more than a generation ago. David Lamb is the only newspaper correspondent from the Vietnam War to later live in peacetime Hanoi. A distinguished Los Angeles Times journalist, he is the author of five previous books. ****************** Vietnam,Now A Reporter Returns by David Lamb People's Magazine: Reviewed by Julie K.L. Dam When Vietnam War correspondent David Lamb returned to the country in 1997, he thought the U.S. involvement in the conflict would remain a sore subject among the Vietnamese. Despite the horror of the war and the hardship that followed, though, people who were once considered the enemy "treated me as an honored guest," writes Lamb. Part political history, part memoir, Vietnam, Now has a simple thesis: It's time for the U.S. to reach a similar sense of closure. At times Lamb seems too eager to embrace the optimist's viewpoint and makes generalizations about the Vietnamese based on limited information. But the eloquently told stories of the vets (both Vietnamese and American) expats and widows he meets (others are profiled in Vietnam Passage: Journeys from War to Peace, a documentary narrated by Lamb that airs on May 23) have an emotional resonance that drives home his point. As one elderly Vietnamese villager tells Lamb before giving him a farewell hug, "The war's past now. It belonged to my generation, not my sons'." (Public Affairs, ) Bottom Line: Eye-opening look at the other side *If you know others who would like VIETNAM, NOW please forward . Les Oubliées de la Piste Hô Chi Minh http://www.france5.fr/articles/W00068/1316/106114.cfm Diffusé le 5/3/2004 à 15 h 45 Pendant la guerre du Vietnam, elles sont 150 000 à se porter volontaires pour défendre leur pays aux côtés des hommes. A leur retour, malades, blessées, épuisées, elles ne reçoivent en guise de récompense qu'incompréhension et mépris. Portrait d'une génération de femmes sacrifiées au nom de l'Indépendance & l'Unification et la Liberté. "La guerre peut durer cinq ans, dix ans, vingt ans ou plus encore. Hanoi, Haiphong ou d'autres villes peuvent être détruites. Ils peuvent bombarder nos usines... rien n'est plus précieux que la liberté et l'indépendance. Jusqu'au jour de la libération, notre peuple reconstruira notre pays plus grand et plus beau..." Lancé en 1966, cet appel d'Hô Chi Minh a été entendu par 220 000 jeunes qui se sont empressés de s'engager dans les unités de volontaires. Parmi eux, 150 000 filles, pour la plupart des paysannes âgées de 20 ans à peine. Prêtes à se donner tout entières à l'effort de guerre, elles ne savaient pas où le terrible conflit les mènerait. Leur enfer a duré en moyenne huit ans. Huit années de pluies incessantes, de moustiques, de bombes, de napalm... qui ne les ont pas empêchées de réparer, sécuriser, construire et reconstruire inlassablement le réseau de 16 000 kilomètres de routes, de ponts et de tunnels composant la célèbre piste Hô Chi Minh. Un axe vital reliant le Nord et le Sud, devenu une obsession pour les deux camps. La guerre de réunification a coûté la vie à 1,5 million de Vietnamiens et à 58 000 soldats américains. Elle a aussi volé aux volontaires leur vie de femme. Revenues malades, blessées, usées avant l'heure, elles n'ont que trop rarement pu bâtir une vie de famille : "A notre retour au village, à 24 ans, on n'était plus mariables", explique Hong. "J'avais le palu, je m'étais tellement enlaidie que personne ne voulait me voir", renchérit Hoi. Seulement, dans la société vietnamienne, renoncer à être mère équivaut à ne plus exister. Meurtries dans leur chair et dans leur âme, certaines ont eu le courage de briser un autre tabou : celui de mettre au monde un enfant hors mariage. Incomprises, répudiées ou blâmées par les communautés villageoises, elles n'ont pu compter que sur elles-mêmes pour survivre. Et ont dû attendre 1997 pour que l'Etat daigne enfin statuer sur leur cas. Les oubliées de la piste Ho Chi Minh Documentaire de 52 minutes Un documentaire de Laurence Jourdan (2003), produit par Sunset Presse. Le résumé Le documentaire est construit autour d'interviews de Vietnamiennes qui racontent les souffrances qu'elles ont subies durant la guerre alors qu'elles s'étaient engagées comme volontaires. Elles étaient chargées de reconstruire inlassablement la piste Ho Chi Minh, voie de ravitaillement des combattants communistes du Sud. Une piste que les Américains savaient devoir absolument détruire et qui était constamment bombardée. Ces femmes racontent comment ces quelques années ont déterminé à jamais leur vie, puisqu'à leur retour dans les villages, elles étaient trop "vieilles", trop malades, ou plus assez jolies pour se marier. Les confidences, l'intimité dévoilée laissent alors entrevoir le statut des femmes dans ce pays, le poids qui pèse sur leurs épaules à la campagne comme en ville, malgré le discours officiel du régime. La critique Qualité de réalisation **** Le documentaire est à la fois beau, touchant, et extrêmement instructif. Les interviews qui se succèdent libèrent la parole de ces femmes tout en leur préservant la possibilité de faire preuve de beaucoup de réserve sur des sujets qu'elles ne souhaitent pas développer. Cette douceur et cette retenue se retrouvent également dans le rythme du documentaire, qui ménage de nombreuses respirations entre les séquences émouvantes, notamment en accordant une place au quotidien domestique des femmes interviewées. Informations pour l'enseignant **** La part faite aux archives est tout particulièrement importante et montre la mobilisation de la population civile dans le conflit vietnamien. D'autre part, le documentaire donne la mesure du rôle des Vietnamiennes durant la guerre. Correspondance avec les programmes scolaires Le documentaire ne correspond pas exactement aux programmes scolaires : en Tle, la guerre du Viêtnam n'est pas étudiée en tant que telle, mais dans le cadre des relations internationales. La question des inégalités homme/femme qu'il soulève - notamment par le biais de la "non-mariabilité", de la sexualité hors mariage, de la non-reconnaissance de ces femmes en tant qu'"héroïnes" - est au programme d'éducation civique en 5e, mais le documentaire est difficile pour des élèves de cet âge. Attractivité pour un jeune public ** Le film pourra être vivement conseillé aux élèves de Tle. Pour en savoir plus PAPIN Philippe Le Viêtnam : parcours d'une nation Belin, coll "Asie Plurielle", 2003. "La guerre peut durer cinq ans, dix ans, vingt ans ou plus encore. Hanoi, Haiphong ou d'autres villes peuvent être détruites. Ils peuvent bombarder nos usines... rien n'est plus précieux que la liberté et l'indépendance. Jusqu'au jour de la libération, notre peuple reconstruira notre pays plus grand et plus beau..." Lancé en 1966, cet appel d'Hô Chi Minh a été entendu par 220 000 jeunes, qui se sont empressés de s'engager dans les unités de volontaires. Parmi eux, 150 000 filles, pour la plupart des paysannes âgées de 20 ans à peine. Prêtes à se donner tout entières à l'effort de guerre, elles n'imaginaient pas où le terrible conflit "les mènerait". Leur enfer a duré en moyenne huit ans. Huit années de pluies incessantes, de moustiques, de bombes, de napalm... qui ne les ont pas empêchées de réparer, sécuriser, construire et reconstruire inlassablement le réseau de 20.000 kilomètres de routes, de ponts et de tunnels composant la célèbre piste Hô Chi Minh. Un axe vital reliant le Nord et le Sud, devenu une obsession pour les deux camps. La guerre de réunification a coûté la vie à 1,5 million de Vietnamiens et à 58 000 soldats américains. Elle a aussi volé leur vie de femme aux volontaires. Revenues malades, blessées, usées avant l'heure, elles n'ont que trop rarement pu bâtir une vie de famille : "A notre retour au village, à 24 ans, on n'était plus mariable", explique Hong. "J'avais le palu, je m'étais tellement enlaidie que personne ne voulait me voir", renchérit Hoi. Seulement, dans la société vietnamienne, renoncer à être mère équivaut à ne plus exister. Meurtries dans leur chair et dans leur âme, certaines ont eu le courage de briser un autre tabou : celui de mettre au monde un enfant hors mariage. Incomprises, répudiées ou blâmées par les communautés villageoises, elles n'ont pu compter que sur elles-mêmes pour survivre. Et ont dû attendre 1997 pour que l'Etat daigne enfin statuer sur leur cas. Béatrice Loiseau


Nguyễn Hữu Viện

 
 
 
 


Thơ Paris - Poèmes dédiés à Paris


Thơ Hà Nội - Poèmes dédiés à Hanoi


Thơ vinh danh Người Tù Lương Tâm - Poèmes à l'Honneur des Prisonniers de la Conscience


Thơ Tượng Trưng - Poètes Symbolistes


Thơ Siêu Thực - Poètes surréalistes


Thơ Lãng Mạng - Poètes romantiques


Thơ Hậu Hiện Đại - Poètes Post-Modernistes


Thơ Dấn Thân - Poètes engagés


Thơ Hòa Bình - Poètes pour la Paix


Thơ cho Tự Do - Poètes pour la Liberté


Thơ Lưu Đày - Poètes en exile


NGUYỄN HỮU VIỆN : Ý KIẾN Chính trị Xã hội - Phần 1


Hà Nội Một Thời Trai Chinh Chiến - Tuyển Tập Thơ Nguyễn Mạnh Hùng


Nhật Ký ĐẶNG THÙY TRÂM .. ..


Kỷ niệm Hồng Phố ...


Cuộc đời Bà Việt kiều Mỹ đẹp như một Bài thơ ...


Lễ hội Tình yêu ....(thơ nhạc tiếng Anh & Pháp do NHV tuyển chọn & sáng tác ....)


Tưởng niệm Thi sĩ Hoàng Anh Tuấn - Người Tình Chung Thủy Ngàn Năm của Hà Nội Muôn Thuở ....


Mười Năm Một Nén Hương Tâm (tưởng niệm Nhà Thơ Dân Tộc Phùng Quán)


Một Vòng Hoa cho Nhà Cách mạng Chân chính & Nhà Văn hoá Nhân bản NGUYỄN HỮU ĐANG (1913-2007)


Tưởng Niệm Húy Nhật thứ 5 Lão Tướng Trần Độ


HOÀNG SA - TRƯỜNG SA



Tưởng Niệm các Nhà Dân Chủ Việt Nam


NGUYỄN HỮU VIỆN : Ý KIẾN Chính trị Xã hội - Phần 2


Đoản thi Shakespeare


Thơ Tình cho LARA - Tuyển tập Thơ trong Tiểu thuyết Bác sĩ Zhivago


Les Miserables musical


Thi sĩ Giải Nobel Văn chương




Lãng Tử - Lãng Du - Lãng Nhân


Tuyển Tập Ảnh


Beethoven gửi Người Yêu Bất Tử : "An Die Fern Geliebte - Gởi Người Yêu Trời Viễn Phương"


Blue Ocean - Biển Xanh - Océane Bleue


My Faraway White Dove ...


Chúc Mừng Xuân Kỷ Sửu 2009 HẠNH PHÚC - YÊU ĐỜI ...


Kỷ Niệm Biến Cố THIÊN AN MÔN 20 Năm (1989-2009)


Aung San Suu Kyi : Linh Hồn của Phong Trào Dân Chủ Miến Điện


Trang Tưởng Niệm Những Con Người Khả kính ...và những Cánh Chim Việt lìa Đàn ...


Những bài thơ .....


Dalena : Nữ ca sĩ yêu ca hát Nhạc Việt với tất cả Tình yêu và Đam mê ...


Ca Nhạc Kịch Evita : Xin Đừng Khóc Thương Cho Ta Á Căn Đình !


Anthologie de la Poésie pour François - Poetry Anthology for François


Tuyển tập Thi ca Việt Nam Hiện đại - Anthology of Modern Vietnamese Poetry


Tuyển tập Thi ca Việt Nam Hiện đại - Anthologie de la Poésie Vietnamienne Moderne


Những tình khúc Anh - Pháp - Việt - Tây Ban Nha


Thủ đô Ánh sáng qua Thi ca


Giáo sư Vũ Quốc Thúc


Thơ Yêu Nước LÝ ĐÔNG A


Céline ! ! ! ...


PARIS : chansons + songs


"Hoàng Hôn Thôn Vỹ"


Prix NOBEL : Pablo NERUDA + Gabriel Garcia Marquez


Les plus belles chansons pour MAMAN et PAPA - The most beautiful songs for MOTHER and FATHER


Academy Award for Best Animated Short Film


ROMEO and JULIET - Shakspeare


HANOI, PARIS, LONDON, .... SAIGON, WASHINGTON ... Top songs


My Teachers, My Schools, My Dog and My Friends ....


Les Chansons berceuses pour notre Titi François


Oh ! Paris !


Golden Globe Award for Best Original Song


Academy Award for Best Original Song


La Mode Parisienne - The Paris Fashion


2014 : Bonne chance François ! ...


Ý KIẾN Nguyễn Hữu Viện PHẦN 3


Ý KIẾN Nguyễn Hữu Viện PHẦN 4


Academy Award for Best Original Score - Giải Oscar cho nhạc phim hay nhất


Ý Kiến NGUYỄN HỮU VIỆN phần 5


The Velours and Orange Revolutions


John McCain